Known in antiquity as Pagali, Psychia, Karkissia, and Melania, Amorgos had three cities: Arkessini, Minoa, and Aegiali. Based on works by ancient geographers and lexicographers, these cities have been identified respectively as being located at Kastri, Moudalia in Katapola, and Vigla at Tholaria. Archaeological finds indicate Amorgos was first settled in the fifth millennium B.C. and suggest links in antiquity with Naxos, Paros, and more remote islands.
Evidence of the Cycladic culture, with its familiar marble figurines, dates from the third millennium B.C. There are also signs of Minoan influence. Venetian rule followed with the architectural vestiges of this era include the Gavras tower (o pyrgos tou Gavra), Kato Lakkos, and the stone - paved Lozes.
This period is followed by Turkish rule, during which Amorgos reaches its economic peak and experiences an ecclesiastic renaissance. In 1822, following the Greek independence revolt, the island becomes the seat of an eparchy of the nascent modern Greek state. Seven years later, in 1829, one of the first Greek schools is established with funds from the Monastery of Panagia Hozoviotissa.
Amorgos is situated between the islands of Naxos and Astypalaia and along the imaginary line that joins Piraeus with the Dodecanese Islands. Ιts shape is quite elongated with a length of about 32 km. The narrowest passage has a width of 3 km, with the widest being around 12km, while the total length of its coastline amounts to 112 km. It has an area of 121 sq km, it is the seventh largest island of the Cyclades and the 25th island of Greece. It is located in the centre of the Aegean Sea and its shores are sandy and extremely beautiful.
The resident population of Amorgos, according to the census of 2001 is 1.859 residents. 
Amorgos is hilly and steep. The highest mountains are the rocky and very rough Krikelos or Kroukelos reaching 821 metres high in the northeastern part of the island, Prophitis Elias is 698 metres high in the centre and Aspro Vouno (White Mountain) is 630 metres high in the south. The largest valley of the island is Kolofanas, which is located on the southwestern tip of the island and is connected with another two smaller ones, the Kato Kampo and Kalotaritissa. 
Amorgos, has a pleasant Mediterranean climate. The winter is mild and is accompanied by strong winds. 
The main occupation of the Amorgians is fishing, shipping and farming. In the recent years however, a growing number of people have become involved in the tourist sector, as the island is going through a growing tourism period.