According to mythology, the island is named after Sikinos, son of King Thoas of Limnos. In antiquity it was known as Oenoe because of its flourishing vineyards.In the 10th century B.C. the island was settled by the Ionians, while in the 5th century B.C. it came under the dominion of Athens.
Sikinos's history parallels that of the other Cyclades islands, passing from Roman to Byzantine rule, then falling to the Venetians and the Turks.Under Venetian rule, the island was part of the Duchy of Naxos.
In 1537, Sikinos was taken by the Turks; in 1829 it became a part of the newly founded modern Greek state.
Sikinos is a Cycladic island of the Aegean Sea, located between the islands of Folegandros and Ios and 14 and 10 miles respectively. From Piraeus is 102 miles away.
Its surface is estimated at 41,676 Km2. While it has a coastline of 40 km. The island's circumnavigation is 17 miles. Around the Sikinos are the following islets, north-west: Avoldas, Agios Georgios and Kardiotissa (the ancient Lagas), and southwest Kalogeros with many rocks, the most important of which is Karavos.
Sikinos has three settlements: Alopronia, Chorio and the Castle. Alopronia (als = sea + providence) is called the small harbor of Sikinos where you can find shops of all kinds and hotels. Chora consists of two separate districts, the Castle and the Chorio, spread over two facing hillsides. On the left side, Chorio is a wonderful puzzle of beautiful houses in labyrinthine streets while just across the street is the Castle, the fortified settlement of the 15th century, built on the edge of a cliff 280 meters above the sea that steals the show.
The main mountains of the island are Troulos (553m), Agios Mamas (549m), Agia Marina (450m) and the so-called "Monastery of the Monastery" (350m) where the Chrysopigi Monastery. The terrain, in which schists and limestones dominate, is one of the most mountainous terrains in the Aegean.

The main cove, which is also a port of the island, is located, is Alopronia. This bay, the oldest travelers, called it "San Bournia" from the name of the Catholic missionary Iacovus of Burnia who was also a doctor.
The climate of the island is dry, with lots of sunshine and strong winds.
The inhabitants of Sikinos are engaged in cultivation, grazing, fishing, beekeeping and dairy.