Paleontological findings prove that the islands of the North Aegean were once united with the opposite Asia Minor. Their very position, which allowed their inhabitants to control the sea routes of commerce of the time, contributed to their development and the creation of a very important civilization.
This culture reached its peak in the third millennium BC. Settlement counts, such as Poliochni of Limnos, Thermi of Lesvos, Emborio of Chios and Ireos of Samos, demonstrate the flourishing of these settlements and make them significant. centers of the season.
At the end of the second BC. The Ionians settled in Chios and Samos, while Lesvos was colonized by the Achaeans. At the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 11th century BC, when large numbers of Greeks moved to Greece, the Aeolians settled in Lesvos. From the 8th to the 5th century BC, the islands were particularly prosperous in economics, commerce, letters and the arts.
During the Persian Wars (5th century BC), the Persians occupied the islands. After their release, they joined the Athens Naval Alliance (468 BC). During the Peloponnesian War (429 - 404 BC) they once allied with Athens and sometimes with Sparta. In 338 BC they came under Macedonian rule and later the Ptolemaic of Egypt. Eventually, the fortunes of the whole of Greece followed and they became a province of the Roman Empire.
During the Byzantine period, the relationship of Constantinople with the Aegean was generally loose. The islands were mainly a place of exile for important figures in the capital.
After the conquest of Constantinople by the Franks (1204 AD), the islands were given as feuds to Venetian, Genoese and Franciscan rulers. Under their hegemony, they are transformed into shipping and commercial centers and thriving economically and demographically.
The Fall of Constantinople (1453 AD) and the founding of the Ottoman Empire meant a period of destruction, pillage, and persecution for the Northern Aegean. The conquest of the islands by the Ottomans led to the decline of the Christian population. Since the early 16th century, however, the islands have recovered and returned to prosperity. Chios emerges as the commercial center of the time and the largest market in the Aegean, along with its neighboring Izmir.
Because of their location near the Asia Minor coast, the islands of the North Aegean have been slow to free themselves from the Turkish yoke. But they saw the sun of freedom rise in 1912, when they were incorporated into the Greek state.
The islands of the Northern Aegean are also known as the Eastern Sporades: Lesvos, Chios, Samos, Lemnos, Ikaria, Fournoi, Oinousses, Psara, Agios Efstratios and their dependent islands and rocks. The Eastern Sporades also include the islands of Samothraki (which belongs to the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace) and Imvros, Tenedos, and the Lagos (or Mavri) island complex, which belong to Turkey.
The islands of the northern Aegean differ in their relief. Their geological history played an important role in this.
The highest peak is in Chios and is Agios Elias (1,297 m), followed by Lesvos, Mount Olympus (968 m) to the south and Lepetimnos (969 m) to the northeast.
Differences also exist in the lowland areas available. Some islands such as Lesvos are important, but others such as Chios are limited. Most of the small islands are small in height, but intense in terrain, forcing their inhabitants to look for livelihoods in livestock and the sea.
The islands of the North Aegean have an excellent climate with mild weather conditions and a lot of sunshine. It is rare to encounter extreme weather conditions such as snow, hail or heat. There is a high percentage of humidity, with an average measurement of 62%. Winds mostly blow from the North Northeast.
The economy of the North Aegean islands is based on fishing, shipping, agriculture, livestock and tourism.